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ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ืœื™ื™ืฆืจ ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ืžืฉืœื›ื ื‘ืกื™ืŸ - ื•ืœื ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ืื™ืคื” ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ?  

ื ืžืืก ืœื›ื ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ ืขื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื“ื™ ืžืคืขืœื™ื, ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื ืื• ืกืคืงื™ื ืœื ืžื•ื›ืจื™ื ื‘ืกื™ืŸ?  

ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ื‘ืงืจืช ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื‘ืจืžื” ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื‘ืกื™ืŸ? 

ื”ืžืกืข ืฉืœื›ื ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ื›ืืŸ..

  • ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืžื•ืœ ืกืคืงื™ื ื•ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ืœื ืคืฉื•ื˜ื”, ืžื•ืจื›ื‘ืช, ื•ืžืืชื’ืจืช ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื–ืจื™ื. ืื ืืชื ืœื ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ืžื” ืืชื ืขื•ืฉื™ื, ืืชื ื›ืžืขื˜ ื‘ื˜ื•ื— ืชืชืงืœื• ื‘ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ื‘ืœืชื™ ืฆืคื•ื™ื•ืช ื•ืžืกืชื›ืœื•ืช. 

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  • ืงืœ ืœืœื›ืช ืœืื™ื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืœืคื™ ื”ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื ื”ืกื™ื ื™ื™ื ื”ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืขื•ืฉื™ื ืขืกืงื™ื ืขื ื”ืžืขืจื‘. ืขืœื™ื›ื  ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ืžื™ ืžื”ื ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ื‘ืจื’ื•ืœืฆื™ื”, ืขื ืžื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื“ื‘ืจ ื‘ืื ื’ืœื™ืช ื‘ืจื•ืจื” , ื•ืขืœ ืื™ื–ื” ืžืคืขืœ ืืคืฉืจ ืœืกืžื•ืš ืฉื™ืฉืœื— ืืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ื‘ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ื–ื” ื›ืื‘ ืจืืฉ ืœื ืงื˜ืŸ, ื•ืืฃ ืื—ื“ ืœื ืžื‘ื˜ื™ื— ื”ืฆืœื—ื”. 

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  • ืžืฆื™ืืช ืžืคืขืœ ืœื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ ืื• ืกืคืง ืœืžืฉืœื•ื— ื”ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ื”ื™ื ื“ืจืš ืฉืงืœ ืœืœื›ืช ื‘ื” ืœืื™ื‘ื•ื“, ืœื—ืชื•ื ืขืœ ื—ื•ื–ื™ื ืœื ื‘ืจื•ืจื™ื ืื• ืขื ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื”ืœื ื ื›ื•ื ื™ื, ื•ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื˜ืขื•ื™ื•ืช ืฉื™ืขืœื• ืœื›ื ื‘ื™ื•ืงืจ. 

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  • ืืชื ืœื ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืืœื” ืฉื”ื–ืžื™ื ื• ืืœืฃ ื™ื—ื™ื“ื•ืช, ืขื‘ืจื• ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืกื™ื•ื˜ ื”ื‘ื™ืจื•ืงืจื˜ื™, ื•ื‘ืกื•ืฃ ืงื™ื‘ืœื• ืžื•ืฆืจ ืžืชืคืจืง ื‘ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื ืžื•ื›ื”, ืฉืคืฉื•ื˜ ืœื ืชืฆืœื™ื—ื• ืœืžื›ื•ืจ ื•ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ื™ืขืœื” ืื‘ืง ื‘ืžื—ืกืŸ. 

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  • ื›ืœ ืืœื• ืžืชื’ืœืžื™ื ืœื”ืคืกื“ื™ื ื›ืกืคื™ื™ื, ืขื•ื’ืžืช ื ืคืฉ, ื‘ื–ื‘ื•ื– ื–ืžืŸ ืขืœ "ืœืžื™ื“ื”" ื•ื”ืžื•ืŸ ื›ืื‘ ืจืืฉ ืฉื’ื•ืจื ืœืขืกืงื™ื ื•ื™ื–ืžื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืœื•ื•ืชืจ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืื“ื™ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ. 

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  • ื•ื–ื” ืœื ื ื’ืžืจ ื›ืืŸ: ืคืขืžื™ื ืจื‘ื•ืช ืชืฆื˜ืจื›ื• ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ ืขื ืžืกืคืจ ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื ื•ืกืคืงื™ื ื‘ืžืงื‘ื™ืœ, ื›ืฉืœื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช, ืžื ื”ืœื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื, ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ืขืกืงื™ืช ืฉื•ื ื” (ืกื™ืŸ ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื”). 

 

  • ืืคืฉืจ ืœื”ื™ืžื ืข ืžื›ืœ ื”ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ื”ืœืœื•, ืื ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื ื ื›ื•ืŸ ื•ื—ื›ื, ื•ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ: ืื ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื ืขื ื—ื‘ืจืช ืกื—ืจ ืฉืžื›ื™ืจื” ืืช ืกื™ืŸ ืœืขื•ืžืง, ืืช ื”ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ืขืกืงื™ืช ืฉืœื”, ื•ืืช ื”ืกืคืงื™ื ื•ื”ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ื”ืืžื™ื ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. 

 

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ื›ืฉื–ื” ืžื’ื™ืข ืœืžืกื—ืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ, ื”ืžื˜ื‘ืข ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื”ื•ื ืืžื™ื ื•ืช, ืฉืงื˜ ืชืขืฉื™ื™ืชื™, ื•ืฉืงื˜ ื ืคืฉื™. 

ื–ื” ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ืžื” ืฉืืชื ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื ื›ืฉืืชื ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื ืขื ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก. 

ืื ื—ื ื• ื‘ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก ื ื”ื™ื” ืื ืฉื™ ื”ืงืฉืจ ื•ื”ืžืชื•ื•ื›ื™ื ืฉืœื›ื ื‘ืกื™ืŸ. 

  • ื ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืคืขืœื™ื, ื”ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื ื•ื”ืกืคืงื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœืžืฆื•ื ืืช ื”ืžื—ื™ืจื™ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. 

  • ื ื‘ืฆืข ืขื‘ื•ืจื›ื ืืช ื”ื”ื–ืžื ื•ืช. 

  • ื ื‘ื“ื•ืง ืืช ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ืขื‘ื•ืจื›ื.

  • ื ื˜ืคืœ ื‘ื‘ื™ืจื•ืงืจื˜ื™ื” ื•ื ื•ื•ื“ื ืขืžื™ื“ื” ื‘ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ืจื’ื•ืœืฆื™ื” - ื•ื”ื›ื™ ื—ื•ืฉื‘ ืฉืืชื ืชืื›ืœื• ืœื™ื™ื‘ื ืืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ ืœืืจืฅ ืœืœื ื›ืœ ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช. 

 

ืื ื—ื ื• ืœื•ืงื—ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ืžืœืื” ืขืœ ื”ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ื•ื”ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืฉืœื›ื - ืžื' ืขื“ ืช'. 

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ืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืจื›ืฉ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ,ืขื ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก, ื‘ื–ื›ื•ืช ื”ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืขืฉื™ืจ ืฉืœื ื•, ืืชื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื™ื”ื ื•ืช ืžืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ืžืœื ืœืื•ืจืš ื›ืœ ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ืžื•ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœ ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื•ืจื›ื™ืฉืช ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ืžืชื•ืฆืจืช ืกื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืชืืžื” ืื™ืฉื™ืช ืœืฆืจื›ื™ื ื”ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื ืฉืœื›ื. 

 

ื–ื• ื”ื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ืช ืฉืœื›ื ืœืคืชื— ืืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ ืฉืชืžื™ื“ ืจืฆื™ืชื ื‘ืื™ื›ื•ืช ืžืขืจื‘ื™ืช, ืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ื™ื™ื ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื™ื, ื•ื‘ืžื—ื™ืจื™ ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืกื™ื ื™ื™ื - ืชื•ืš ืฉืžื™ืจื” ืขืœ ืฉืงื˜ ืชืขืฉื™ื™ืชื™ ืžืœื.

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ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืขื•ื“? ื›ื ืกื• ื•ื”ื™ืจืฉืžื• ื‘ืืชืจ ื”ืžืกื—ืจ ื”ืื™ื ื˜ืจืืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ืฉืœื ื•

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ืžื™ ืื ื—ื ื•

ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก ื”ื™ื ื—ื‘ืจืช ืกื—ืจ ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ืช ื”ืžื•ืžื—ื™ืช ื‘ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืžื•ืœ ืžืื•ืช ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื ืกื™ื ื™ื™ื. 

 

ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก ืžื™ื™ืฆืจืช ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ืจื—ื‘ ืฉืœ ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื”ืชืืžื” ืื™ืฉื™ืช ืœื™ื‘ื•ืื ื™ื, ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื , ืžื•ืชื’ื™ื, ืจืฉืชื•ืช ืฉื™ื•ื•ืง ื•ื—ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ืื•ืŸ ืœื™ื™ืŸ. 

 

ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื ืืชื ืžื™ื™ืฆืจื™ื ืฆื™ื•ื“ ืœื‘ื™ืช ืื• ืื‘ื™ื–ืจื™ ื—ื™ืœื•ืฃ ืœืจื›ื‘, ืื ื—ื ื• ื‘ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก ื ืœืš ืื™ืชื›ื ืœืื•ืจืš ื›ืœ ื”ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ืžื•ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœ ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื•ืจื›ื™ืฉืช ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ืžืชื•ืฆืจืช ืกื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืชืืžื” ืื™ืฉื™ืช ืœืฆืจื›ื™ื ื”ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื ืฉืœื›ื. 

 

ืื ืฉื™ ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืข ืฉืœื ื• ืขื‘ืจื• ื”ื›ืฉืจื” ืžืงื™ืคื” ื•ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœืชืช ืœื›ื ืืช ื”ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืงื‘ืœ ื›ื™ื•ื ื‘ืกื™ืŸ. 

 

ืขื ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก, ืืชื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื™ื”ื ื•ืช ืžืฉืงื˜ ืชืขืฉื™ื™ืชื™ ื•ืžื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื‘ืจืžื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ: ืœืœื ืชืงืœื•ืช ื‘ืœืชื™ ืฆืคื•ื™ื•ืช, ื•ืขื ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ืžืœืื” ืขืœ ื”ืงื ื™ื™ื”, ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืœืื—ืจ ื”ืžื›ื™ืจื”, ื•ืžื—ื™ืจื™ ืงื ื™ื™ื” ืื˜ืจืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื™ื.   

 

ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก ืžืชืื™ืžื” ืืช ื”ืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœื ื• ืœืฆืจื›ื™ื ืฉืœื›ื - ืœืœื ืคืฉืจื•ืช ืขืœ ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ, ื•ื‘ื”ืชืืžื” ืžืœืื” ืœืงื”ืœ ื”ื™ืขื“ ื”ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื ืฉืœื›ื.

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ืœืกื™ืคื•ืจ ืฉืœื ื• >

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ืžื” ืื ื—ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ืฆื™ืข ืœื›ื? 

  • ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ืžื' ืขื“ ืช': ืžืฉืœื‘ ื”ืจืขื™ื•ืŸ, ื“ืจืš ื”ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื•ืขื“ ืœื™ื‘ื•ื ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ ืœืืจืฅ

  • ืžืฉื ื•ืžืชืŸ ืžื•ืœ ื”ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื ื‘ืกื™ืŸ

  • ืคื™ืชื•ื— ื”ืืจื™ื–ื”

  • ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ ืขื™ืฆื•ื‘ ื’ืจืคื™ 

  • ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ ืคื™ืชื•ื— ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ื•ืงื ื™ื™ืช ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ืœืืžื–ื•ืŸ ื•ื—ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ืื•ื ืœื™ื™ืŸ 

  • ืžืฉืœื•ื—ื™ื ื•ืื™ื—ื•ื“ ืกื—ื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ืžื—ืกืŸ ืœื•ื’ื™ืกื˜ื™ ืฉืœื ื• ื”ืžืžื•ืงื ื‘ื ื™ื ื’ื‘ื•, ืกื™ืŸ 

  • ืคื™ืชื•ื— ื•ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ื™ื 

  • ื”ืจื›ื‘ืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ 

  • ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ ื‘ื”ืชืืžื” ืื™ืฉื™ืช 

  • ืคื™ืงื•ื— ืžืœื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ 

  • ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ืžืœืื” ืขืœ ื”ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ 

  • ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ื™ืจื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืฆื•ื•ืช ื”ืžื ื•ืกื” ื•ื”ื•ื•ืชื™ืง ืฉืœื ื• 

ืื ื—ื ื• ืžืชืžื—ื™ื ื‘-16 ืงื˜ื’ื•ืจื™ื•ืช ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืฉื•ื ื•ืช: 

ืžื” ืžื™ื™ื—ื“ ืื•ืชื ื•? 

ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื‘ืœืชื™ ืžืชืคืฉืจืช

ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื™ื”ื ื•ืช ืžืื™ื›ื•ืช ืžืขืจื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืžื—ื™ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืกื™ืŸ, ืื ื—ื ื• ืฉื•ืืคื™ื ืœื”ืขืœื•ืช ืืช ืชืงื ื™ ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื”ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ืฉืœื ื• ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ืœืจืžืช ืชืงื ื™ื ืื™ืจื•ืคืื™ื™ื, 

ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก ื”ื™ื ื—ื‘ืจื” ื‘ื‘ืขืœื•ืช ืžืขืจื‘ื™ืช, ื•ืื ื—ื ื• ืžืงืคื™ื“ื™ื ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ ืจืง ืขื ืžืคืขืœื™ื, ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื ื•ืกืคืงื™ื ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ืฉืžืกืคืงื™ื ืชื•ืฆืจืช ื‘ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื”. ืœืขื•ืœื ืœื ื ืชืคืฉืจ ืขืœ ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ ืฉืœืš. 

ืฉื™ืคื•ืจ ืžืชืžื™ื“  

ื”ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœื ื• ื‘ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืžื•ืœ ืžืื•ืช ืœืงื•ื—ื•ืช ืžืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื•ื›ื™ื—ื” ืœื ื• ืฉืชืžื™ื“ ืืคืฉืจ ืœืœืžื•ื“, ืœื”ืคื™ืง ืœืงื—ื™ื, ื•ืœื”ืฉืชืคืจ. 

 

ืœื›ืŸ ืื ื—ื ื• ืžืงื“ื™ืฉื™ื ื–ืžืŸ ื•ืžืฉืื‘ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืœืฉื™ืคื•ืจ ืžืชืžื™ื“ ืฉืœ ืจืžืช ื”ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื•ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื.

ื›ื“ื™ ืœื™ื™ืขืœ ืืช ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืฉืœื ื• ื‘ืกื™ืŸ, ื‘ื™ืฆืขื ื• ืžืกืคืจ ืฆืขื“ื™ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื: 

 

ื”ื›ื ืกืช ืชื”ืœื™ืš ืžืฉื•ื›ืœืœ ื•ืžืงื™ืฃ ืฉืœ ื‘ืงืจืช ืื™ื›ื•ืช ืงืคื“ื ื™ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืคื ื™ ื•ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ 

ื”ื˜ืžืขืช ืชื”ืœื™ื›ื™ ื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื‘ืžืขื‘ื“ื•ืช ื—ื™ืฆื•ื ื™ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื•ื—ื ื•ืช ืืช ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื”ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืืชืจ ืชืงืœื•ืช ื•ืคื’ืžื™ื ื‘ื”ืงื“ื ื”ืืคืฉืจื™ 

ืจื›ื™ืฉืช ืžืชืงืŸ ืœื•ื’ื™ืกื˜ื™ ืžืžื•ื—ืฉื‘ ื‘ื’ื•ื“ืœ 1100 ืžื˜ืจ ืœืื™ื—ื•ื“ ื”ืกื—ื•ืจื•ืช ื•ื”ืขืžืกื” ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ืื—ื“. 

ืคื™ืชืจื•ืŸ ื”ื•ืœื™ืกื˜ื™ ื›ื•ืœืœ

ื‘ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก ืžืกืคืงื™ื ืœื›ื ืคื™ืชืจื•ืŸ ื›ื•ืœืœ ื•ืžืงื™ืฃ - ื›ืš ืฉืืชื ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื”ืชื ื”ืœ ืžื•ืœ ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื‘ืžืงื‘ื™ืœ, ื•ืœื‘ื–ื‘ื– ื–ืžืŸ, ืื ืจื’ื™ื” ื•ืžืฉืื‘ื™ื ื™ืงืจื™ื. ืืชื ืชืงื‘ืœื• ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ ื•ืžืงื™ืฃ ืœืื•ืจืš ื›ืœ ื”ืชื”ืœื™ืš: 

  

  • ื‘ื ื™ื™ืช ื”ืจืขื™ื•ืŸ 

  • ืฉืจื˜ื•ื˜ ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ 

  • ื‘ื ื™ื™ืช ื”ืฉืœื“ ื•ืคืจื•ื˜ื•ื˜ื™ื™ืค 

  • ืกื˜ื•ื“ื™ื• ืœืขื™ืฆื•ื‘ ืืจื™ื–ื” 

  • ืฆื™ืœื•ื ื”ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื 

  • ืฉื™ื•ื•ืง ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ ืœืงื”ืœ ื”ื™ืขื“

  • ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื•ื‘ืงืจืช ืื™ื›ื•ืช ืงืคื“ื ื™ืช 

  • ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื•ื”ืชืืžื” ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœืชืงื ื™ื ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ื™ื 

  • ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื‘ืžื—ืกืŸ ืœื•ื’ื™ืกื˜ื™ ืœืืจื™ื–ื” ื•ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ 

  • ืฉื™ืœื•ื— ืื•ื•ื™ืจื™ ืื• ื™ืžื™ 

ืœืงื•ื—ื•ืช ืžืจื•ืฆื™ื ืžืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื

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ืžืื™ืคื” ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ื? 

ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ื‘ื”ืจืฉืžื” ืœืงื˜ืœื•ื’ ื”ืžืงื•ื•ืŸ ืฉืœื ื• ืื• ืฆืจื• ืื™ืชื ื• ืงืฉืจ. 

ืื™ืš ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื ืื™ืชื ื•? 

ืฆืจื• ืื™ืชื ื• ืงืฉืจ ื•ื ืฆื™ื’ ืžื˜ืขืžื ื• ื™ื—ื–ื•ืจ ืืœื™ื›ื ื‘ื”ืงื“ื ื”ืืคืฉืจื™. 

ืžืฉื ืื ื—ื ื• ื›ื‘ืจ ื ื ื—ื” ืื•ืชืš ื‘ื”ืžืฉืš ื”ืฉืœื‘ื™ื ื‘ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื‘ื—ื™ืจืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ื•ื”ื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื™ืฆื•ืจ.

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** ืฉื™ืžื• ืœื‘ ืฉืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืืจื•ืš ื•ืžื•ืจื›ื‘. ืœืขื™ืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืœื•ืงื— ื›ื—ืฆื™ ืฉื ื” ืžืจื’ืข ื‘ื—ื™ืจืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ ื•ืขื“ ืฉื”ืžื•ืฆืจ ื ื›ื ืก ืœืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ. ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื‘ื—ื•ืจ ืกืคืง ืžื ื•ืกื” ื•ืืžื™ืŸ ืฉื™ืœื•ื•ื” ืืชื›ื ืœืื•ืจืš ื›ืœ ื”ื“ืจืš ื‘ืฉืงื™ืคื•ืช ืžืœืื”, ื•ื‘ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ืžืœืื” ืขืœ ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ.

ืžื“ื•ืข ื›ื“ืื™ ืœื™ื™ืฆืจ ื“ืจืš ื—ื‘ืจืช ืกื—ืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ? 

ืื ื™ืฆื ืœื›ื ืœื ืกื•ืช ืœื‘ื ื•ืช ื•ืœื™ื™ืฆืจ ืžื•ืฆืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ, ื‘ื•ื•ื“ืื™ ื ืชืงืœืชื ื‘ืฉืืœื•ืช ื”ื‘ืื•ืช: 

 

  • ืžื”ื™ ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ื ื•ื—ื” ื•ื”ืืคืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื™ื™ืฆืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ? 

  • ื”ืื ืงื™ื™ื ืกืคืง ืกื™ื ื™ ืืžื™ืŸ ืฉืืคืฉืจ ืœืกืžื•ืš ืขืœื™ื• ืœืื•ืจืš ื–ืžืŸ?  

  • ื”ืื ืืคืฉืจ ืœืžืฆื•ื ืžื™ืฉื”ื• ืฉื™ืกืคืง ืคืชืจื•ืŸ ื›ื•ืœืœ ืœื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ื‘ืกื™ืŸ - ืžื‘ืœื™ ืœื‘ื–ื‘ื– ื–ืžืŸ ืžื•ืœ ืืœืคื™ ืžืคืขืœื™ื? 

  • ื”ืื ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ื–ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืžื•ื™ื•ืช ืงื˜ื ื•ืช ื•ืœืื—ื“ ืกื—ื•ืจื” ืœืžื—ืกืŸ ืœื•ื’ื™ืกื˜ื™ ืื—ื“? 

  • ืื™ืš ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืชื›ื ืŸ ื•ืœืขืฆื‘ ืืจื™ื–ื” ืฉืžืชืื™ืžื” ืœื™? 

  • ืžื™ ื™ื“ืื’ ืœืžื•ืœื“ ืฉืœื™ ืžื•ืœ ื”ืžืคืขืœื™ื ื‘ืกื™ืŸ? 

  • ืื™ืš ืืคืฉืจ ืœื”ืชื’ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืžื›ืฉื•ืœ ื”ืฉืคื” ื•ื”ื ื™ื•ืื ืกื™ื ื”ืชืจื‘ื•ืชื™ื™ื? 

 

ื”ืฉืืœื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ื”ืŸ ืจืง ืงืฆื” ื”ืžื–ืœื’ ืฉืœ ื”ื“ื™ืœืžื•ืช, ื”ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ื•ื”ืืชื’ืจื™ื ืฉื ืชืงืœืชื ื‘ื”ื ื›ืฉื™ื™ืฆืจืชื ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ื‘ืกื™ืŸ. 

ื•ื›ืžื• ื‘ื›ืœ ืชื—ื•ื ืขืกืงื™, ืืชื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื ืกื•ืช ืœืขื ื•ืช ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ื‘ืขืฆืžื›ื ื•ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืงืฉื” - ืื• ืฉืืชื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ ืขื ืžื•ืžื—ื™ื ืฉื—ื™ื™ื ื•ื ื•ืฉืžื™ื ืืช ื”ืฉื•ืง ื”ืกื™ื ื™. ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก ืžื›ื™ืจื” ืืช ื”ืฉื•ืง ื”ืกื™ื ื™ ื”ื™ื˜ื‘, ื•ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ืœื›ื ืœืžืฆื•ื ืืช ื”ืชืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช ืœืฉืืœื•ืช ื”ืœืœื•.

ื”ื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืขื ื—ื‘ืจืช ืกื—ืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ:

ื”ื›ืจืช ื”ืฉื•ืง ื”ืกื™ื ื™

ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ืกื—ืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ืžื›ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ื™ื˜ื‘ ืืช ื”ืฉื•ืง ื”ืกื™ื ื™, ืฉื”ื•ื ืฉื•ืง ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ ืขื ื—ื•ืงื™ื ื•ืจื’ื•ืœืฆื™ื” ืžืฉืœื•. ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉืชืœื›ื• ืœืื™ื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉืืชื ืœื ืžื›ื™ืจื™ื, ืขื ืฉืคื” ืฉืืชื ืœื ืžื‘ื™ื ื™ื - ื—ื‘ืจืช ื”ืกื—ืจ ืชืžืฆื ืœื›ื ืืช ื”ืกืคืงื™ื ืฉืืชื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ื”ื™ื ืชืกืคืง ืœื›ื ืชื•ื‘ื ื•ืช, ืจืขื™ื•ื ื•ืช, ื•ืขื“ื›ื•ื ื™ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื”ืชืžื—ื•ืจ, ื”ื˜ืจื ื“ื™ื, ื•ื”ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ืขืกืงื™ืช ื‘ืกื™ืŸ. 

 

ื—ื™ืกื›ื•ืŸ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื•ื‘ืขืœื•ื™ื•ืช

ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ืกื—ืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ื™ื‘ืฆืขื• ืขื‘ื•ืจื›ื ืžื—ืงืจ ืกืคืงื™ื, ืžืฉื ื•ืžืชืŸ ืขืœ ืžื—ื™ืจื™ื, ื•ื‘ืงืจืช ืื™ื›ื•ืช. ื‘ื›ืš ื”ืŸ ื™ื—ืกื›ื• ืœื›ื ื–ืžืŸ ื•ืขืœื•ื™ื•ืช, ื•ื™ืคื ื• ืœื›ื ื–ืžืŸ ื™ืงืจ ืœื”ืชืžืงื“ ื‘ื”ื™ื‘ื˜ื™ื ื”ืืกื˜ืจื˜ื’ื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืขืกืง. 

 

ืชืงืฉื•ืจืช ื™ืขื™ืœื” ื•ืืคืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ

ื›ื“ื™ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืขืกืงื™ื ื‘ืกื™ืŸ, ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ืช, ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืฉืคื”, ื•ืœืฉืœื•ื˜ ื‘ื ื™ื•ืื ืกื™ื ื”ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืกื’ื•ืจ ืื• ืœื”ืคื™ืœ ืขืกืงื”. ื—ื‘ืจืช ื—ืกืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ืชืขื–ื•ืจ ืœื›ื ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ืขืกืงื™ืช ื‘ืกื™ืŸ, ื•ืชืขื–ื•ืจ ืœื›ื ืœืชืงืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช ืžื•ืœ ื”ืกืคืงื™ื ื•ื”ืžืคืขืœื™ื ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื. 

 

ืฆืžืฆื•ื ืกื™ื›ื•ื ื™ื

ื›ืฉืืชื ืขื•ืฉื™ื ืขืกืงื™ื ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื–ืจื”, ื™ืฉ ื”ืžื•ืŸ ืกื™ื›ื•ื ื™ื ืฉืืชื ืœื ืžื•ื“ืขื™ื ืืœื™ื”ื: ื”ืคืจืช ื—ื•ื–ื™ื, ืื™ ืขืžื™ื“ื” ื‘ื–ืžื ื™ื, ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืฉืœื ืขื•ื‘ื“ ื‘ืชื ืื™ ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื•ืขื•ื“. ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ืกื—ืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ื™ื‘ืจืจื• ืœื›ื ืืช ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืืชื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื“ืขืช ืขืœ ื”ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื•ื”ืืžื™ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืกืคืงื™ื ืฉืœื›ื. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ื”ื ื™ื ื”ืœื• ืžืฉื ื•ืžืชืŸ ืขื‘ื•ืจื›ื ืขืœ ื—ื•ื–ื™ื ื•ื”ืกื›ืžื™ื, ื•ื™ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื• ืขืžื™ื“ื” ื‘ืชืงื ื™ ืื™ื›ื•ืช.  

 

ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช ื•ืืคืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ

ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ื”ืกื—ืจ ื™ื ื”ืœื• ืืช ืœื•ื— ื”ื–ืžื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื•ืืกืคืงืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ, ื™ื˜ืคืœื• ื‘ืœื•ื’ื™ืกื˜ื™ืงื”, ื•ื™ืกืคืงื• ืœื›ื ืขื“ื›ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืืžืช ืขืœ ืžืฆื‘ ื”ื”ื–ืžื ื”. 

ืžื”ื• ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืœืคื™ ื“ืจื™ืฉื”? 

ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืœืคื™ ื“ืจื™ืฉื” (OEM) ืžืชืืจ ื™ืฆืจืŸ ื”ืžื™ื™ืฆืจ ืžื•ืฆืจ ืื• ื—ืœืง ื”ื ืจื›ืฉ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื—ื‘ืจื” ืื—ืจืช ื•ื ืžื›ืจ ืชื—ืช ืฉื ื”ืžื•ืชื’ ืฉืœื”. ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ื”ืžื•ื ื— ืžืฉืžืฉ ืœืชื™ืื•ืจ "ืžื•ืฆืจ ืคืจื˜ื™": ืžื•ืฆืจ ื”ืžื™ื•ืฆืจ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืžืคืขืœ ื•ืื™ืœื• ื”ืžืฉื•ื•ืง ืื• ื™ื‘ื•ืืŸ ืงื•ื ื” ืื•ืชื• ืžื”ืžืคืขืœ ื•ืžืžื•ืชื’ ืขื ืฉื ืืจื™ื–ื” ื•ืกื™ืžืŸ ืžืกื—ืจื™ ืฉืœื”ื. 

 

ืœื—ื™ืœื•ืคื™ืŸ, ื”ืžื•ื ื— ืžืกืžืœ "ืชื•ื•ื™ืช ืคืจื˜ื™ืช": ืžื•ืฆืจ ื”ืžื™ื•ืฆืจ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื™ืฆืจืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ื•ืžืžื•ืชื’ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื™ื‘ื•ืืŸ ื•ืื• ื”ืžืฉื•ื•ืง ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื•ืคื™ืข ื›ืื™ืœื• ื™ื•ืฆืจ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื•ืชื” ื—ื‘ืจื”.

 

ื”ืžื•ื ื— ODM ืžืชื™ื™ื—ืก ืœื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืžื•ืฆืจ ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ืชื”ืœื™ืš ืคื™ืชื•ื— ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ ื”ื›ื•ืœืœ ืืคื™ื•ืŸ ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื, ืชื›ื ื•ืŸ ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื, ื”ื ื“ืกื”, ื“ื’ืžื™ ื‘ื ื™ื™ื”, ืžื™ืชื•ื’ ื•ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืกื“ืจืชื™. 

 

ื‘ื—ื‘ืจืช ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก ืื ื—ื ื• ืžืกืคืงื™ื ืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื’ื ื‘ืžื•ืฆืจื™ OEM ื•ื’ื ื‘ืžื•ืฆืจื™ ODM.

 

  • ื‘ืชื”ืœื™ืš OEM ืฆื•ื•ืช ืžื™ื•ืžืŸ ื™ืœื•ื•ื” ืื•ืชื›ื ืœืื•ืจืš ื›ืœ ื”ืชื”ืœื™ืš: 

  • ื‘ื—ื™ืจืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ 

  • ืžืฉื ื”ืžืชืŸ ืžื•ืœ ื”ืžืคืขืœื™ื 

  • ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ื•ืขื“ื›ื•ืŸ ื›ืœ ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื™ืฆื•ืจ 

  • ืขื–ืจื” ื•ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ ื‘ืคื™ืชื•ื— ื”ืืจื™ื–ื” ื•ืขื™ืฆื•ื‘ื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืกื˜ื•ื“ื™ื• ื•ื’ืจืคื™ืงืื™ื•ืช ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ื•ืช 

  • ื‘ื“ื™ืงืช ื”ื™ืฆื•ืจ, ื‘ืงืจืช ื”ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื•ื”ืชืืžืช ื”ืชืงื ื™ื ื”ื ื“ืจืฉื™ื 

  • ืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ืื—ืกื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื™ืœื•ื— ืืœื™ื›ื  

 

ื‘ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”-ODM ืืชื ืชืขื‘ื“ื• ืขื ื”ืžื”ื ื“ืกื™ื ืฉืœื ื•, ื•ืชืงื‘ืœื• ืืคืฉืจื•ื™ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ืœืชื›ื ื•ืŸ ื•ืคื™ืชื•ื— ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ ืฉืœื›ื. ืขื ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก, ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœืคืชื— ืืช ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื›ื ืชื•ืš ืฉืžื™ืจื” ืขืœ ืกื•ื“ื™ื•ืช ืžื•ื—ืœื˜ืช ื•ืคืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ืžืœืื”. ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื›ื•ืœืœ: 

 

  • ืคื™ืชื•ื— ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืจื™ืฉื•ื ื•ื”ื“ืžื™ื” 

  • ืžืฆื™ืืช ื”ื™ืฆืจืŸ ื”ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืœืฆืจื›ื™ื ืฉืœื›ื.

  • ื‘ื—ื™ืจืช ื—ื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื™ืฆื™ืจืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืจ.

  • ืคื™ืชื•ื— ื”ืชื‘ื ื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื“ื™ืงืช ืื™ื›ื•ืชื ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื™ืฆื•ืจ 

  • ื‘ื—ื™ืจืช ื”ืžืคืขืœื™ื ืœื™ืฆื™ืจืช ื”ืชื‘ื ื™ื•ืช ื•ืžืคืขืœื™ ืงื• ื”ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ.

  • ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื”ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืคื™ืงื•ื— ื•ื‘ืงืจื” ื›ืœ ื”ืชื”ืœื™ืš ืžืฉืœื‘ ื”ืชื‘ื ื™ืช ื•ืขื“ ืœืกื™ื•ื ื”ื™ืฆื•ืจ.

ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ื™ืจืฉื ื‘ืืชืจ ื”ืžืกื—ืจ ื”ืื™ื ื˜ืจืืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ืฉืœื ื•

ืกื™ืคื•ืจื” ืฉืœ ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก

ืื ื™ ืงื ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™. 

ื‘ืžืฉืš ืฉื ื™ื ืืจื•ื›ื•ืช, ืงื ื™ืชื™ ื•ื™ื™ืฆืจืชื™ ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื‘ืกื™ืŸ, ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ืื‘ื™ื–ืจื™ ืจื›ื‘. 

ืœืžื“ืชื™ ืืช ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืฆืจื™ืš ืœื“ืขืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืชื ื”ืœ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืžื•ืœ ืžืคืขืœื™ื ื•ืกืคืงื™ื. 

ื—ื•ื•ื™ืชื™ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืืชื’ืจื™ื ื”ืงืฉื™ื ืฉืงื ื™ื™ืŸ ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ืžืชืžื•ื“ื“ ืื™ืชื - ื›ื•ืœืœ ืžื›ื•ืŸ ื”ืชืงื ื™ื ื”ืžืื“ ืžืกื•ื‘ืš.  

ืคืขืžื™ื ืจื‘ื•ืช ืงื™ื‘ืœืชื™ ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืžืžื” ืฉื”ื–ืžื ืชื™, ืื• ืฉื”ืžื•ืฆืจ ื”ื™ื” ืคื’ื•ื. 

ืœืžื“ืชื™ ืœื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“, ืœืชืงืŸ, ืœื”ืฆื™ืข ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ื™ื, ืœืืœืชืจ ื•ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืœืคืขื ื”ื‘ืื”. 

ืœืžื“ืชื™ ืืช ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืœืื•ืจื›ื• ื•ืœืจื•ื—ื‘ื•. 

 

ื‘-2008 ืงื™ื‘ืœืชื™ ื”ื—ืœื˜ื”: ืื ื™ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœื’ื•ืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ. 

ืขืฉื™ืชื™ ื–ืืช ื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืฉื•ืง ื”ืกื™ื ื™ ืžืฆื™ืข ืœืขืกืงื™ื ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ื™ื ื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื—ืกืจื•ืช ืชืงื“ื™ื. 

ื”ื™ื›ื•ืœืช ืœื™ื™ืฆืจ ืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ืจื—ื‘ ืฉืœ ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ื‘ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื˜ื•ื‘ื”, ื•ื‘ืžื—ื™ืจื™ื ื ื•ื—ื™ื ืœื”ืคืœื™ื. 

ื”ื‘ืขื™ื” ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ืฉืจื•ื‘ ื”ืขืกืงื™ื ื”ืœืœื• ืœื ื”ื›ื™ืจื• ืืช ื”ืฉื•ืง ื”ืกื™ื ื™.

ื”ื ืœื ื™ื“ืขื• ืขื ืžื™ ืœื“ื‘ืจ, ืขืœ ืžื™ ืœืกืžื•ืš, ืœืื™ื–ื• ืื™ื›ื•ืช ืœืฆืคื•ืช, ื•ืื™ืš ืœื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ ืขื ืืชื’ืจื™ื. 

ื”ื ื”ื™ื• ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ื’ื•ืจื ืฆื“ ื’' ืฉืžื›ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืฉื•ืง ื”ืกื™ื ื™, ืฉื™ืœื•ื•ื” ืื•ืชื ืœืื•ืจืš ื”ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ืžื•ืจื›ื‘. 

 

ืœื›ืŸ ื”ืงืžืชื™ ืืช ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก ื‘-2008: 

ื›ื“ื™ ืœืกืคืง ื“ืจืš ื—ื“ืฉื ื™ืช, ื ื•ื—ื” ื•ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื” ืœืงื ื•ืช ื•ืœื™ื™ืฆืจ ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ื‘ืกื™ืŸ. 

 

ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ืžืกืข ืžืืชื’ืจ ื•ืžืœื ื‘ื”ืคืชืขื•ืช. 

ื‘ื™ืงืจื ื• ื‘ืืœืคื™ ืžืคืขืœื™ื, ืกืคืงื™ื ื•ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ืกื™ืŸ.  

ืœืขื™ืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืื ื—ื ื• ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื”ื–ืจื™ื ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ื ืฉื. 

ื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ื ื• ืขื ืงืฉื™ื™ ื”ืกืชื’ืœื•ืช, ืคืขืจื™ื ืชืจื‘ื•ืชื™ื™ื, ืจื’ื•ืœืฆื™ื” ื—ื“ืฉื”, ื•ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ืœืžื™ื“ืช ื”ืฉืคื” ื”ืกื™ื ื™ืช. 

 

ืื‘ืœ ื”ืืชื’ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืขืžื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ื ื• ื”ื™ื”: 

ืฉื™ืคื•ืจ ื”ืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื•ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืœืงื•ื—ื•ืช ื›ืš ืฉื”ืœืงื•ื—ื•ืช ื™ืงื‘ืœื• ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื•ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืžืขื•ืœื™ื ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืขืงื‘ื™. 

ื‘ื›ืš ื”ื—ืœ ื”ืžืกืข ืฉืœื ื• ื•ืฉืœ ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก. 

ืขืฉื™ื ื• ื”ื›ืœ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืงืœ ื•ืœืฉืคืจ ืืช ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื•ื”ื™ื™ื‘ื•ื ืžืกื™ืŸ: ืžื—ื™ืคื•ืฉ ื”ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ื”ื ื•ื—ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ, ื“ืจืš ืฉื™ืคื•ืจ ื‘ืงืจืช ื”ืื™ื›ื•ืช, ื•ืขื“ ืœืฉื“ืจื•ื’ ืžืขืจืš ื”ืฉื™ืจื•ืช. 

 

ื‘ืื™ื˜ื™ื•ืช ืืš ื‘ืขืงื‘ื™ื•ืช, ื˜ื™ืจื•ืคืœืงืก ื’ื“ืœื” ื•ืฆืžื—ื” ื•ื”ืคื›ื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœื” ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ืœื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื•ื™ื™ืฆื•ื ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ืžืกื™ืŸ. ื”ื•ื“ื•ืช ืœืœืงื•ื—ื•ืช ื›ืžื•ื›ื, ืื ื—ื ื• ื—ื‘ืจืช ื”ืกื—ืจ ื”ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœื” ื‘ืžื™ืงื•ืจ ื•ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื‘ืกื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื—ืœืคื™ื ื•ืื‘ื™ื–ืจื™ ืจื›ื‘. 

ื”ืกื™ืคื•ืจ ืฉืœื ื•

ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืžืชืœื‘ื˜ื™ื? 

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